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HomeCOVID-19Save our babies from the jab - 1

Save our babies from the jab – 1

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FOLLOWING the announcement that children aged six months to four years in the US can be vaccinated against Covid 19, a group of 78 UK doctors have written an open letter to the Medical and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and others setting out comprehensive reasons why this action must not be taken here. If, as we expect, the mainstream media ignore this letter, it will be further evidence that they are not interested in reporting the truth about this experimental gene therapy but only in covering it up. We have two other posts on this highly important topic today.

Dr June Raine, CEO MHRA

Professor Lim Wei Shen, Chairman JCVI Covid-19 vaccines sub-committee

Professor Chris Whitty, Chief Medical Officer

Dr Jenny Harries, CEO, UKHSA

Hon Sajid Javid, MP, Secretary of State for Health & Social Care

30th June 2022

Dear Dr Raine,

Re: Covid-19 vaccines for 6 months to 4 years age group

We are writing to you urgently concerning the announcement that the FDA [the US Food and Drug Administration] has granted an Emergency Use Authorisation for both Pfizer and Moderna Covid-19 vaccines in preschool children.

We would urge you to consider very carefully the move to vaccinate ever younger children against SARS-CoV-2 despite the gradual but significant reducing virulence of successive variants, the increasing evidence of rapidly waning vaccine efficacy, the increasing concerns over long-term vaccine harms, and the knowledge that the vast majority of this young age group have already been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 repeatedly and have demonstrably effective immunity. Thus, the balance of benefit and risk which supported the rollout of mRNA vaccines to the elderly and vulnerable in 2021 is totally inappropriate for small children in 2022. 

We also strongly challenge the addition of Covid-19 vaccination into the routine child immunisation programme https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/vaccinations/nhs-vaccinations-and-when-to-have-them/  despite no demonstrated clinical need, known and unknown risks (see below) and the fact that these vaccines still have only conditional marketing authorisation.

It is noteworthy that the Pfizer documentation presented to the FDA has huge gaps in the evidence provided: 

·         The protocol was changed mid-trial. The original 2-dose schedule exhibited poor immunogenicity with efficacy far below the required standard. A third dose was added by which time many of the original placebo recipients had been vaccinated.  

·         There was no statistically significant difference between the placebo and vaccinated groups in either the 6–23-month age group or the 2-4-year-olds even after the third dose. Astonishingly the results were based on just three participants in the younger age group (1 vaccinated and 2 placebo) and just seven participants in the older 2–4-year-olds (2 vaccinated and 5 placebo). Indeed, for the younger age the confidence intervals ranged from minus 367 per cent to plus 99 per cent. The manufacturer stated that the numbers were too low to draw any confident conclusions. Moreover, these limited numbers come only from children infected more than seven days after the third dose. 

·         Over the whole time period from the first dose onwards (see page 39 Tables 19 & 20), there were a total of 225 infected children in the vaccinated arm and 150 in the placebo arm, giving a calculated vaccine efficacy of only 25 per cent (14 per cent for the 6-23 months, and 33 per cent for 2-4s).  

·         The additional immunogenicity studies against Omicron, requested by the FDA, only involved a total of 66 children tested one month after the third dose (see page 35).   

It is incomprehensible that the FDA considered that this represents sufficient evidence on which to base a decision to vaccinate healthy children. When it comes to safety, the data is even thinner: only 1057 children, some already unblinded, were followed for just 2 months. It is noteworthy that Sweden and Norway are not recommending the vaccine for 5-11s and Holland is not recommending it for children who have already had Covid-19. The director of the Danish Health and Medicines Authority stated recently that with what is now known, the decision to vaccinate children was a mistake.

We summarise below the overwhelming arguments against this vaccination.

A.  Extremely low risk from Covid-19 to young children

·         In the whole of 2020 and 2021, not a single child aged 1-9 died where Covid-19 was the sole diagnosis on the death certificate, according to ONS data.[1]

·         A detailed study in England from 1st March 2020 to 1st March 2021 found only 6 children under 18 years died with no comorbidities. There were no deaths aged 1-4 years.[2]

·         Children clear the virus more easily than adults.[3]

·         Children mount effective, robust, and sustained immune responses.[4]

·         Since the arrival of the Omicron variant, infections have been generally much milder. That is also true for unvaccinated under 5s.[5]

·         By June 2022 it is now estimated that 89 per cent of 1-4-year-olds had already had SARS-CoV-2 infection.[6]

·         Recent data from Israel shows excellent long-lasting immunity following infection in children, especially in 5-11s.[7]

B.  Poor vaccine efficacy 

·         In adults it has become apparent that vaccine efficacy wanes steadily over time, necessitating boosters at regular intervals. Specifically, vaccine efficacy has waned more rapidly against the latest Omicron variants. 

·         In children vaccine efficacy has waned more rapidly in 5-11s than in 12-17s, possibly related to the lower dose used in the paediatric formulation. One study from New York showed efficacy against Omicron falling to only 12 per cent by 4-5 weeks and to negative values by 5-6 weeks post second dose.[8] 

·         In the Pfizer 0-4s trial,1 the efficacy after two doses fell to negative values, necessitating a change to the trial protocol. After a third dose there was a suggestion of efficacy from 7-30 days but there is no data beyond 30 days to see how quickly this will wane. 

C. Potential harms of Covid-19 vaccines for children

·       There has been great concern about myocarditis in adolescents and young adults, especially in males after the second dose, estimated at 1/2600 in active post marketing surveillance in Hong Kong.[9] The emerging evidence of persistent cardiac abnormalities[10] in adolescents with post mRNA vaccine myopericarditis, as demonstrated by cardiac MRI at 3-8 months follow up, suggests this is far from ‘mild and shot-lived’. The potential for longer term effects requires further study and calls for the strictest application of the precautionary principle in respect of the youngest and most vulnerable children.

·         Although post-vaccination myocarditis appears to be less common in 5-11-year-olds than older children, it is, nonetheless, increased over baseline.[11] 

·         In the Pfizer study 50 per cent of vaccinated children had systemic adverse events, including irritability and fever. Diagnosis of myocarditis is much more difficult in younger children.[12]  No troponin levels or ECG studies were documented. Even a vaccinated child in the trial, hospitalised with fever, calf pain and a raised CPK, had no report of D-dimers, antiplatelet antibodies or troponin levels.

·         In Pfizer’s 5-11s post-authorisation conditions, they are required to conduct studies looking for myocarditis and are not due to report results until 2027.

·         Of equal concern are, as yet unknown, negative effects on the immune system. In the 0-4s trial, only 7 children were described as having ‘severe’ Covid-19 – 6 vaccinated and 1 given placebo. Similarly, for the 12 children with recurrent episodes of infection, 10 were vaccinated against only 2 who received placebo. These are all tiny figures and much too small to rule out any adverse impact such as antibody dependant enhancement (ADE)[13]  and other impacts on the immune system.

·         Also unanswered is the question of Original Antigenic Sin.[14]  It is of note that in a large Israeli study, those infected after vaccination had poorer cover than those vaccinated after infection.[15]  In the Moderna trial, N antibodies were seen in only 40 per cent of those infected after vaccination, compared with 93 per cent of those infected after placebo.[16] 

·         There is evidence of vaccine-induced disruption of both innate and adaptive[17],[18] immune responses. The possibility of developing an impaired immune function would be disastrous for children, who have the most competent innate immunity, which by now has been effectively trained by the circulating virus.

·         Totally unknown is whether there will be any adverse effect on T-cell function leading to an increase in cancers.[19] 

·         Also, in terms of reproductive function, limited animal biodistribution studies showed lipid nanoparticles concentrate in ovaries and testes.[20]  Adult sperm donors have showed a reduction in sperm counts particularly of motile sperm, falling by 3 months post-vaccination and remaining depressed at 4-5 months.[21] 

·         Even for adults, concerns are rising that serious adverse events are in excess of hospitalisations from Covid-19.[22]

D. Informed consent

·         For 5-11s, the JCVI, in recommending a ‘non-urgent offer’ of vaccination, specifically noted the importance of fully informed consent with no coercion.[23]

·         With the low uptake in this age group, the presence of ‘therapy dogs’,[24] advertisements including superhero images[25] and information about child vaccination protecting friends and family, all clearly run contrary to the concept of consent, fully informed and freely given.[26] 

·         The complete omission of information explaining to the public the different and novel technology used in Covid-19 vaccines compared to standard vaccines, and the failure to inform of the lack of any long-term safety data, borders on misinformation.[27]

E. Effect on public confidence 

·         Vaccines against much more serious diseases, such as polio and measles, need to be prioritised.[28]  Pushing an unnecessary and novel, gene-based vaccine on to young children risks seriously undermining parental confidence in the whole immunisation programme.

·         The poor quality of the data presented by Pfizer risks bringing the pharmaceutical industry into disrepute and the regulators if this product is authorised.

In summary, young healthy children are at minimal risk from Covid-19, especially since the arrival of the Omicron variant.  Most have been repeatedly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 virus, yet have remained well, or have had short, mild illness. As detailed above, the vaccines are of brief efficacy, have known short- to medium-term risks and unknown long-term safety. Data for clinically useful efficacy in small children are scant or absent.  In older children, for whom they are already licensed, they have been promoted via ethically dubious schemes to the potential detriment of other, and vital, parts of the childhood vaccination programme.

For a tiny minority of children for whom the potential for benefit clearly and unequivocally outweighed the potential for harm, vaccination could have been facilitated by restrictive licences.  Whether following the precautionary principle or the instruction to First Do No Harm, such vaccines have no place in a routine childhood immunisation programme.  

Professor Angus Dalgleish, MD, FRCP, FRACP, FRCPath, FMed Sci, Principal, Institute for

  Cancer Vaccines & Immunotherapy (ICVI)

Prof Anthony Fryer, PhD, FRCPath, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry, Keele University 

Professor David Livermore, BSc, PhD, Retired Professor of Medical Microbiology, UEA

Professor John Fairclough FRCS FFSEM retired Honorary Consultant Surgeon 

Lord Moonie,  MBChB, MRCPsych, MFCM, MSc, House of Lords, former parliamentary under-

  secretary of state 2001-2003, former consultant in Public Health Medicine

Dr Abby Astle, MA(Cantab), MBBChir, GP Principal, GP Trainer, GP Examiner

Dr Michael D Bell, MBChB, MRCGP, retired General Practitioner

Dr Alan Black, MBBS, MSc, DipPharmMed, Retired Pharmaceutical Physician

Dr David Bramble, MBChB, MRCPsych, MD, Consultant Psychiatrist

Dr Emma Brierly, MBBS, MRCGP, General Practitioner

Dr David Cartland, MBChB, BMedSci, General practitioner

Dr Peter Chan, BM, MRCS, MRCGP, NLP, General Practitioner, Functional medicine

  practitioner 

Michael Cockayne, MSc, PGDip, SCPHNOH, BA, RN, Occupational Health Practitioner

Julie Coffey, MBChB, General Practitioner 

John Collis, RN, Specialist Nurse Practitioner, retired

Mr Ian F Comaish, MA, BM BCh, FRCOphth, FRANZCO, Consultant Ophthalmologist

James Cook, NHS Registered Nurse, Bachelor of Nursing (Hons), Master of Public Health

Dr Clare Craig, BMBCh, FRCPath, Pathologist

Dr David Critchley, BSc, PhD in Pharmacology, 32 years’ experience in Pharmaceutical R&D

Dr Jonathan Engler, MBChB, LlB (hons), DipPharmMed

Dr Elizabeth Evans, MA (Cantab), MBBS, DRCOG, Retired Doctor

Dr John Flack, BPharm, PhD, retired Director of Safety Evaluation at Beecham Pharmaceuticals and retired Senior Vice-president for Drug Discovery SmithKline Beecham

Dr Simon Fox, BSc, BMBCh, FRCP, Consultant in Infectious Diseases and Internal Medicine

Dr Ali Haggett, Mental health community work, 3rd sector, former lecturer in the history of

  medicine

David Halpin, MB BS FRCS, Orthopaedic and trauma surgeon (retired)     

Dr Renée Hoenderkampf, General Practitioner

Dr Andrew Isaac, MB BCh, Physician, retired

Dr Steve James, Consultant Intensive Care

Dr Keith Johnson, BA, DPhil (Oxon), IP Consultant for Diagnostic Testing

Dr Rosamond Jones, MBBS, MD, FRCPCH, retired consultant paediatrician

Dr Tanya Klymenko, PhD, FHEA, FIBMS, Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Sciences

Dr Charles Lane, MA, DPhil, Molecular Biologist

Dr Branko Latinkic, BSc, PhD, Molecular Biologist

Dr Felicity Lillingstone, IMD DHS PhD ANP, Doctor, Urgent Care, Research Fellow 

Dr Theresa Lawrie, MBBCh, PhD, Director, Evidence-Based Medicine Consultancy Ltd, Bath

Katherine MacGilchrist, BSc (Hons), MSc, CEO/Systematic Review Director, Epidemica Ltd.

Dr Geoffrey Maidment, MBBS, MD, FRCP, Consultant physician, retired

Ahmad K Malik FRCS (Tr & Orth) Dip Med Sport, Consultant Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgeon

Dr Kulvinder Singh Manik, MBBS, General Practitioner

Dr Fiona Martindale, MBChB, MRCGP, General Practitioner

Dr S McBride, BSc (Hons) Medical Microbiology & Immunobiology, MBBCh BAO, MSc in Clinical Gerontology, MRCP(UK), FRCEM, FRCP (Edinburgh). NHS Emergency Medicine & geriatrics

Mr Ian McDermott, MBBS, MS, FRCS(Tr&Orth), FFSEM(UK), Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

Dr Franziska Meuschel, MD, ND, PhD, LFHom, BSEM, Nutritional, Environmental and Integrated Medicine

Dr Scott Mitchell, MBChB, MRCS, Emergency Medicine Physician

Dr Alan Mordue, MBChB, FFPH. Retired Consultant in Public Health Medicine & Epidemiology

Dr David Morris, MBChB, MRCP(UK), General Practitioner

Margaret Moss, MA (Cantab), CBiol, MRSB, Director, The Nutrition and Allergy Clinic, Cheshire

Dr Alice Murkies, MD FRACGP MBBS, General Practitioner

Dr Greta Mushet, MBChB, MRCPsych, retired Consultant Psychiatrist in Psychotherapy

Dr Sarah Myhill, MBBS, retired GP and Naturopathic Physician

Dr Rachel Nicholl, PhD, Medical researcher

Sue Parker Hall, certified transactional analyst (CTA, psychotherapy); MSc (Counselling &

  Supervision) MBACP (senior accredited practitioner); EMDR practitioner, Psychotherapist

Dr Christina Peers, MBBS, DRCOG, DFSRH, FFSRH, Menopause specialist 

Rev Dr William J U Philip MB ChB, MRCP, BD, Senior Minister The Tron Church, Glasgow, formerly physician specialising in cardiology

Dr Angharad Powell, MBChB, BSc (hons), DFRSH, DCP (Ireland), DRCOG, DipOccMed, MRCGP, General Practitioner

Dr Gerry Quinn, PhD. Postdoctoral researcher in microbiology and immunology

Dr Johanna Reilly, MBBS, General Practitioner

Jessica Righart, MSc, MIBMS, Senior Critical Care Scientist

Mr Angus Robertson, BSc, MB ChB, FRCSEd (Tr & Orth), Consultant Orthopaedic Surgeon

Dr Jessica Robinson, BSc(Hons), MBBS, MRCPsych, MFHom, Psychiatrist and Integrative Medicine Doctor

Dr Jon Rogers, MB ChB (Bristol), Retired General Practitioner

Mr James Royle, MBChB, FRCS, MMedEd, Colorectal surgeon

Dr Roland Salmon, MB BS, MRCGP, FFPH, Former Director, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre Wales

Sorrel Scott, Grad Dip Phys, Specialist Physiotherapist in Neurology, 30 years in NHS

Dr Rohaan Seth, BSc (hons), MBChB (hons), MRCGP, Retired General Practitioner

Dr Gary Sidley, retired NHS Consultant Clinical Psychologist

Dr Annabel Smart, MBBS, retired General Practitioner

Natalie Stephenson, BSc (Hons) Paediatric Audiologist

Dr Zenobia Storah,MA (Oxon), Dip Psych, DClinPsy, Senior Clinical Psychologist (Child and Adolescent)

Dr Julian Tompkinson, MBChB MRCGP, General Practitioner GP trainer PCME

Dr Noel Thomas, MA, MBChB, DCH, DObsRCOG, DTM&H, MFHom, retired doctor

Dr Stephen Ting, MB CHB, MRCP, PhD, Consultant Physician

Dr Livia Tossici-Bolt, PhD, Clinical Scientist

Dr Carmen Wheatley, DPhil, Orthomolecular Oncology

Dr Helen Westwood MBChB MRCGP DCH DRCOG, General Practitioner

Mr Lasantha Wijesinghe, FRCS, Consultant Vascular Surgeon

Dr Damian Wilde, PhD, (Chartered) Specialist Clinical Psychologist

Dr Ruth Wilde, MB BCh, MRCEM, AFMCP, Integrative & Functional Medicine Doctor


[1] COVID-19 Deaths and Autopsies Feb 2020 to Dec 2021, Table 1: Number of Deaths Where COVID-19 Was the Only Cause Mentioned on the Death Certificate, 1 February 2020 to 31 December 2021, by Sex and Age Group, England and Wales, Jan. 17, 2022, Office for National Statisticshttps://www.ons.gov.uk/aboutus/transparencyandgovernance/freedomofinformationfoi/covid19deathsandautopsiesfeb2020todec2021

[2] Smith C, Odd D, Harwood R et al. Deaths in Children and Young People in England following SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first pandemic year: a national study using linked mandatory child death reporting data. Nature Medicine 28 (2022): 185–192, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-021-01578-1.pdf

[3] Kevin J. Selva, Carolien E. van de Sandt, Melissa M. Lemke, et al., Systems Serology Detects Functionally Distinct Coronavirus Antibody Features in Children and ElderlyNature Communications 12, no. 2037 (2021), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22236-7.

[4] Alexander C. Dowell, Megan S. Butler, Elizabeth Jinks, et al., “Children Develop Robust and Sustained Cross-Reactive Spike-Specific Immune Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Infection,” Nat Immunol 23 (2022): 40–49, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-01089-8

[5] Wang L, Berger NA, Kaelber DC, Davis PB, Volkow ND, Xu R. COVID infection severity in children under 5 years old before and after Omicron emergence in the US. Preprint. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.01.12.22269179v1.full.pdf

[6] MRC Biostatistics Unit. Report on Nowcasting and Forecasting – 23rd June 2022. https://www.mrc-bsu.cam.ac.uk/now-casting/nowcasting-and-forecasting-23rd-June-2022/

[7] Patalon T & Maccabi KS. Naturally-acquired Immunity Dynamics against SARS-CoV-2 in Children and Adolescents. Preprint 21/06/2022. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.06.20.22276650v1

[8] Dorabawila V, Hoefer D, Bauer UE et al. Effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine among children 5-11 and 12-17 years in New York after the Emergence of the Omicron Variant. Preprint 28/02/2022. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.02.25.22271454v1.full-text

[9] Chua GT, KWan MYW, Chui CSL et al. Epidemiology of Acute Myocarditis/Pericarditis in Hong Kong Adolescents Following Comirnaty Vaccination. N Engl J Med 2022; 386: 394-396. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8767823/

[10] Schauer J, Buddhe S, Gulhabe A et al. Persistent Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in a Cohort of Adolescents with Post-Coronavirus Disease 2019 mRNA Vaccine Myopericarditis. J Pediatr 2022; 245: 233-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.03.032

[11] Su JR. COVID-19 vaccine safety updates: Primary series in children and adolescents ages 5–11 and 12–15 years, and booster doses in adolescents ages 16–24 years. ACIP meeting 05-01-2022. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/meetings/downloads/slides-2022-01-05/02-COVID-Su-508.pdf

[12] Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Health Library. Myocarditis in Children. Myocarditis in Children | Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Prognosis (cincinnatichildrens.org)

[13] Yahi N, Chahinian H, Fantini J. Infection-enhancing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies recognize both the original Wuhan/D614G strain and Delta variants. A potential risk for mass vaccination?. J Infect. 2021;83(5):607-635. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351274/ 

[14] Brown EL, Essigmann HT. Original Antigenic Sin: the Downside of Immunological Memory and Implications for COVID-19. mSphere 2021; 6(2): e00056-21. ttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8546681/

[15] Goldberg Y, Mandel M, Bar-On YM et al. Protection and waning of natural and hybrid COVID-19 immunity. N Engl J Med 2022; 386: 2201-12. https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa2118946?articleTools=true

[16] Follmann D, Janes HE, Buhule OD et al. Anti-nucleocapsid antibodies following SARS-CoV-2 infection in the blinded phase of the mRNA-1273 Covid-19 vaccine efficacy clinical trial. Preprint 19-04-2022. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.04.18.22271936v1.full

[17] Föhse FK, Geckin B, Overheul GJ et al. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 reprograms both adaptive and 2 innate immune responses. Preprint 06-05-2021. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.03.21256520

[18] Seneff S, Nigh G, Kyriakopoulos AM, McCullough PA. Innate immune suppression by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations: The role of G-quadruplexes, exosomes, and MicroRNAs. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2022; 164:113008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2022.113008

[19] Singh N, Bharara Singh A. S2 subunit of SARS-nCoV-2 interacts with tumor suppressor protein p53 and BRCA: an in silico study. Transl Oncol. 2020;13(10):100814. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7324311/

[20] Pfizer-bio-distribution-confidential-document-translated-to-english.pdf. https://www.naturalnews.com/files/Pfizer-bio-distribution-confidential-document-translated-to-english.pdf

[21] Gat I,Kedem A, Dviri M et al. Covid-19 Vaccination BNT162b2 Temporarily Impairs Semen Concentration and Total Motile Count among Semen Donors. Andrology 2022;1–7. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/andr.13209

[22] Fraiman J, Erviti J, Jones M, Greenland S, Whelan P, Kaplan RM, Doshi P. Serious Adverse Events of Special Interest Following mRNA Vaccination in Randomized Trials. Preprint 23-06-2022. https://ssrn.com/abstract=4125239

[23] JCVI statement on vaccination of children aged 5 to 11 years old. 16-02-2022. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/jcvi-update-on-advice-for-covid-19-vaccination-of-children-aged-5-to-11/jcvi-statement-on-vaccination-of-children-aged-5-to-11-years-old

[24] Therapy dogs comfort children during Covid jabs. BBC News. 27-02-2022. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-wiltshire-60529628

[25] Evans E. “Calling All Superhero Kids”: The Unethical Targeting of Young Children by the NHS with COVID-19 Vaccine Adverts. The Daily Sceptic 19-06-2022. https://dailysceptic.org/archive/calling-all-superhero-kids-the-unethical-targeting-of-young-children-by-the-nhs-with-covid-19-vaccine-adverts/

[26] NHS South East London Clinical Commissioning Group. FAQs – Vaccinating 5 to 11 year olds.  https://selondonccg.nhs.uk/what-we-do/covid-19/covid-19-vaccine/faqs/faqs-vaccinating-5-to-11-year-olds/

[27] What is in the vaccine and how does it work? | NHS. 30-04-2021. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgtWpwkS9u4&list=PLnhASgDToTktp2HIjdyeo2fsI6Agcn1ul&index=6

[28] Boyd C. Polio may be spreading in Britain for first time in 40 YEARS. Mail Online 23-06-2022.  https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-10938639/Polio-spreading-UK-time-40-years-Evolved-version-virus-London-sewage.html

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